Checks and Balances

Modification of Checks and balances

  • Rise of national political parties
  • expansion of electorate and the move toward more direct democracy
  • establishment of agencies deliberately esigned to exercise legislative, executive and judicial functions
  • changes in technology
  • growht of presidential power.

Direct Primary: Election in which voters chosse party nominees

Initiative: Procedure whereby a certain number of voters may by petition propose a law or constitutional amendment and have it submitted to voters.

Recall: Procedure for submitting to popular vote the removal of officers from office before the end of term.

Referendum: Procedure for submitting to popular vote measures passsed by the legislature or porposed amendments to a state constitution.

Origins of Judicial Review: Whether the delegates to the Constitution Convention of 1787 intended to give the courts the power of judicial review is a long debated question. MARBURY VS MADISON

  • John Marshall sowrn in as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court through a “midnight appointment” of President Adams in 1801.
  • Jefferson refuses to deliver other commisions
  • Constitution is the supreme and binding law.
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