Modification of Checks and balances
- Rise of national political parties
- expansion of electorate and the move toward more direct democracy
- establishment of agencies deliberately esigned to exercise legislative, executive and judicial functions
- changes in technology
- growht of presidential power.
Direct Primary: Election in which voters chosse party nominees
Initiative: Procedure whereby a certain number of voters may by petition propose a law or constitutional amendment and have it submitted to voters.
Recall: Procedure for submitting to popular vote the removal of officers from office before the end of term.
Referendum: Procedure for submitting to popular vote measures passsed by the legislature or porposed amendments to a state constitution.
Origins of Judicial Review: Whether the delegates to the Constitution Convention of 1787 intended to give the courts the power of judicial review is a long debated question. MARBURY VS MADISON
- John Marshall sowrn in as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court through a “midnight appointment” of President Adams in 1801.
- Jefferson refuses to deliver other commisions
- MARBURY VS MADISON
- Constitution is the supreme and binding law.