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Some federal agencies resemble corporations in that they function in a businesslike manner and charge clients for their services. Government corporations differ in some important ways from private corporations. For example, government corporations do not have stockholders and do not pay dividends if they make a profit; instead, the government corporation retains all profits.
Independent executive agencies are line organizations that do not fall under the control of any one department. Presidents often like new agencies to be independent so that they have more direct control over them. Congress decides how to fit new independent executive agencies within the existing bureaucracy.
An independent regulatory agency is an agency outside of the cabinet departments that makes and enforces rules and regulations. The president nominates people to regulatory boards and agencies, and the Senate confirms them. Generally, these bureaucrats serve set terms in office and can only be removed for illegal behavior. Regulatory agencies tend to function independently from the elected parts of government, which gives them the freedom to make policy without any political interference.
No problem! I have listed some for you :D
…..well…. now that I just finished this list I just found this gem for you! It has great summaries!
Super Delegates: an informal term commonly used for some of the delegates to the Democratic National Convention (most of the super delegates are seated automatically, based solely on their status as current or former party leaders and elected officials and not on primaries or caucuses).
How they give authority to party leaders: When a candidate enters a race they have to fight for the nomination. The more delegates they win, the more legitimate they appear as contenders. The candidate who appears to have the lead is called the front-runner.
Sure thing! here are some quick summaries from my notes!
Everson v. Board of Education (1947) : A New Jersey law that allowed reimbursements of money to parents who sent their children to school on buses operated by public transportation did not violate the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.
Munn v. Illinois(1877): States may regulate the use of private property, even by regulations and taxes.
Gratz v. Bollinger(2003): Struck down use of bonus points for race in undergrad admissions at University of Michigan; affirmative action.
Zelman v. Simons-Harris(2002): Public money can be used to send disadvantaged children to religious schools in tuition voucher programs.
Ashcroft v ACLU(2002): Struck down a federal ban on virtual child pornography.
Kelo v. The City of New London (2005): A city in Connecticut has the right to use eminent domain to seize private property to sell to private developers, if it helps the economic development of the jurisdiction.
New Jersey v. TLO (1985): A fourteen year old girl was searched in school without a warrant. The Court used a less strict standard of “reasonableness” to conclude that the search did not violate the Constitution- and abandoned the requirement on school property of “probable cause.”
These are all interest groups
Interest group: “Besides lobbying, interest groups also play the outside game by trying to convince ordinary citizens to apply pressure on their government representatives. Interest groups playing the outside game often rely on grassroots activism and electoral strategies to achieve their goals.”
527: an organization that is tax exempt. Advertise for or against candidates (elections)
501 (c): Individuals that are tax exempt. Includes non profits whose purpose is not political (example: america coming together, media fund, and swift boat veterans)
PAC Political Action Committee :Political arm on an interest group that is legally entitled to raise funds on an voluntary basis from members, stockholders, or employees.
Super Pac and independent expenditures are the same thing.
Independent expenditures: They can not make contributions to candidate campaigns ore parties, but can engage in unlimited political spending independently of the campaigns. Can raise money without any legal limit of donation size.